Portugal. Margarida Afonso is a member of the Legal Service of the European Commission, Brussels, Belgium. A Portuguese national, Ms. Afonso has been legal counsel and European and international law expert within European Union institutions since May 1994. Prior to this, she served for three years as advisor to the European Affairs Department of the Portuguese Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Before and after joining the European Commission, Ms. Afonso worked on three separate occasions as ‘référendaire’ (law clerk) to judges at the European Court of Justice. Since 1999, she has been providing legal advice to the European Commission on a wide range of topics, primarily but not exclusively within the areas of external relations, harmonized rules on taxation, and control of subsidies granted by EU Member States. In the course of her duties as a member of its Legal Service, Ms. Afonso has represented the European Commission in more than two hundred litigation proceedings before the European Court of Justice, as well as in proceedings before domestic courts of the EU Member States and before arbitration tribunals. Her duties have often included the drafting of EU legislation and the participation in decision-making procedures leading to approval of this legislation. She has also participated in negotiations of international agreements to which the European Union is a party. Ms. Afonso holds law degrees from Harvard Law School, the College of Europe in Bruges, and the Law School of the Classical University of Lisbon. During her year at Harvard, Ms. Afonso intends to carry out research on the enforceability of provisions in international trade agreements within the United States legal order. In addition, she hopes to identify the governmental departments and agencies that play a role in the enforcement of international trade agreements concluded by the United States and to gain a better understanding of the division of tasks and responsibilities among them.